1. The challenge faced by those who manage transport movement with in urban areas.
2. How urban areas are managing movements with in them.
The challenges that face those who manage movement in urban areas is greatly increased as more and more people chose to use cars to travel into and around already congested city centres. People chose to use their own methods of transport as opposed to using public transport in many areas because using a car takes you on a more direct route and is more reliable than public transport e.g. the bus service, the rail service and in some areas the monorail. As the towns and cities grow, so do the population and the volume of traffic on the roads.
In the U.K, between 1965 and 1996 the road network grew by 11% and the car traffic increased by 156%. This increase in traffic is caused by an increase in urban income as well as more people living in the urban environment. In Sydney, Australia’s major city, the geographical location makes managing the transport movement difficult because the city is built up around a series of bays. The centre of the city is also the main business centre of Australia and so people commuting and travelling into the area for business reasons increase the congestion problems.
The traffic problems in Sydney are being managed effectively and the amount of congestion on the roads has been greatly reduced. This is because using cars in the city is actually less direct than public transport because of its geographical situation. The basic management strategies are based on providing good, efficient public transport and discouraging people from commuting to work by car. This has been achieved by limiting the car parking facilities e.g. having no multi story car parks, and limiting the on road parking in main city centre areas.
This has resulted in an increase in the price, because there are less parking spaces and it is harder to come by. There are also very few parking meters and those that there are, are very expensive. Parking illegally is promoted as an offence and most people who park illegally are fined and caught. There are three main systems of public transport the railway, the ferry system and the bus system. These public services are all integrated to offer a high quality and reliable service to all. Other ideas have been introduced to promote the use of public transport like free parking in suburb stations, low costs of public transport and more frequent bus train or ferry pick ups.
The ferries are probably the most important transport system because people need to travel to and from different bays and to travel on land would mean travelling a longer distance, which takes more time and money. Different price ranges operate for different needs e.g. the price of the transport is increased if the speed of the ferry is quicker. The ferry system is extensive so most people have access to the service and both the railway stations and the bus stations are integrated. The Olympic games held in Sydney prompted lots of the improvements in transport.
Bangkok and Cubatao are two examples of LEDC cities with massive transport problems. Bangkok has been said to have been “choking to death” because of the amount of air pollution mostly emitted from traffic on the congested roads. The congestion here is particularly bad due to a lack of funding and bad planning. The traffic density is made a major problem because Bangkok has a very low proportion of road surface area. The city suffers from photochemical smog that reduces visibility as well as causing significant health problems.
The poor visibility contributes to more road accidents, which increases congestion on the crowded roads even more. Bangkok is managing and improving it’s traffic problems by creating mass rapid transport systems, moving traffic more quickly and efficiently by road, rail and by the development of both public and private transport. The expressway and rapid transit authority has developed a number of elevated roads to cross the city that consist mainly of dual carriage ways