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Hypothesis: As the level of physical exercise increases, the pulse rate will also increase. Females will have a higher pulse rate difference compared to that of males, of the same age group.

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Variables:

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Independent Variable: Climbing Stairs, Using the treadmill

Dependent Variable: Heart Beat Rate

Control Variables:

The following factors were controlled, or kept the same in this test:

-Room temperature: In the gym: 220C �0.5, On stairs: 250C �0.5; measured using Thermometer

-Time over which subject was under experiment: 2 minutes �0.5

-Time of the day: Period 3, 10.45-11.45am

-Time over which subject was allowed to rest before pulse was measured: 20 seconds �0.05, this was measured using a stopwatch

-Same equipment used to measure pulse rate in order to have standardized results, that is, pulse rate monitor and stop watch, to the accuracy of �00.5

-Same method used to measure pulse rate

-Time over which pulse rate was measured, after exercising: 1 minute �0.05

-Speed on treadmill: Level 6, was kept constant throughout

-Same person for tests

-Time for person to rest between trials: 2 minutes �0.05

Materials Needed:

-Thermometer

-Stopwatch

-Pulse Rate monitor

-Recording Sheet

-Stairs

-Treadmill

Procedure for Controlling Variables:

-The time for which subject was allowed to rest before pulse was measured: constantly 20 seconds �00.5, this was measured using a stopwatch

– A thermometer was used to ensure the accuracy of the room temperature: the gym: 220C �0.5, On stairs: 250C �0.5

– Time over which subject was under experiment: 2 minutes �0.5, measured using stopwatch

-Time of the day: Period 3, 10.45-11.45am

-Same equipment used to measure pulse rate in order to have standardized results, that is, pulse rate monitor and stop watch, to the accuracy of �00.5

-Same method used to measure pulse rate

-Time over which pulse rate was measured, after exercising: 1 minute �0.05, using stopwatch

-Speed on treadmill: Level 6, was kept constant throughout

-We used the same subject for both sets of exercise so as to make sure individual differences like stamina/fitness level, gender, weight, different diets were kept constant throughout

Procedure of Data Collection:

1. To start with, initial pulse rate was measured so that the rise/fall can be seen clearly. This was done for 1 minutes �0.05 using a stopwatch

2. The exercising was then carried out: In each trial, the subject was supposed to climb down and up flights of stairs for a total of 2 minutes �0.05

3. After exercise, the patient was to stand still for 20 seconds �0.05, after which the pulse rate was measured

4. This was then recorded -accuracy was attempted to be maintained

5. Pulse rate was then allowed to reach initial rates so as to continue with the next set of exercise/conduct more trials

6. The second set of physical exercise was then carried out: Subjects were asked to walk on the treadmill for two minutes, at level 6, to keep going, burning as many calories as they could, trying to keep up with the pace-The main objective was to see the pulse rate at the end of 2 minutes �0.05, thus seeing the effect of exercise on pulse rate

7. Both sets of individuals, males are females were used in both sets of exercise to see the difference in heart pulse

8. Same individual was used for the two sets to ensure reliable results.

9. All experimental trials must be undertaken on the same day since the individual’s health may be different tomorrow, compared to that of today.

Data Collection:

Raw Data:

Table showing the initial and final pulse rate for Individual 1 for stair climbing-Female

Pulse Rate �0.05 (beats/minute)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Initial pulse rate

118

126

125

Final pulse rate

138

130

139

Table showing the initial and final pulse rate for Individual 2 for stair climbing-Male

Pulse Rate �0.05

(beats/minute)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Initial pulse rate

72

116

108

Final pulse rate

120

127

133

Table showing the initial and final pulse rate for Individual 1 for treadmill-Male

Pulse Rate �0.05

(beats/minute)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Initial pulse rate

76

72

74

Final pulse rate

139

124

127

Table showing the initial and final pulse rate for Individual 1 for treadmill-Female

Pulse Rate �0.05

(beats/minute)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Initial pulse rate

90

91

95

Final pulse rate

136

139

125

Processed Data:

Calculations: Average = value of trial 1+2+3

3

Table showing average pulse rates for Individual 1, Female and Individual 2, Male

Initial pulse rate �0.05

(beats/minute)

Final pulse rate �0.05

(beats/minute)

Individual 1: Stair Climbing

123.00

135.67

Individual 2: Stair Climbing

98.67

126.67

Individual 1: Treadmill

92.00

133.33

Individual 2: Treadmill

74.00

130.00

Background Information:

Heart rate: The number of heart beats per unit time, usually per minute. The heart rate is based on the number of contractions of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). The heart rate may be too fast (tachycardia) or too slow (bradycardia). The pulse is bulge of an artery from the wave of blood coursing through the blood vessel as a result of the heartbeat.

[ Adapted from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3674]

As seen from the graph above, my hypothesis was correct; Exercise affects Pulse Rate by showing a great increase. It can also be seen that the Pulse Rates for Individual 2, Males was generally lower than that of Individual 1, Females. I believe this is because Males have a much higher fitness level than that of Females and because they’re constantly on the move, they might not be as affected by a two-minute walk in comparison to Females. This could be wrong, because I also think that since Males have more muscle, they would have to work harder to release energy for the physical movement. More oxygen will be needed for their muscles, and this would increase their heartbeat. In order to confirm my hypothesis, I thus carried out calculations to find out which individual had a higher % change in pulse.

The average change in Pulse Rate for both Exercises for Females was 20.17% while for Males was 32.50%. This showed me that there was a greater average change in pulse rate among Males, which confirmed my hypothesis. It is true that Females also do have muscle which needs to be broken down in order to release energy, however, in comparison to Males, it’s much more smaller. This means Females would not require as much energy during Exercise. However, it was also observed that the Initial Resting Rate for Females was higher than that of Males.

Thus, the heart rate rises while exercising because the cell respiration cells that are in our body tend to need more oxygen, which is normally found in he haemoglobin of Red Blood Cells. The heart and the lungs alongside also work harder to obtain oxygen so as to maintain respiration rate. During exercise, cell respiration thus increases and this is why a change of about 20.17%-32.50% in pulse rate was seen. The heart’s reaction to exercise is pumping more blood, so as to deliver enough oxygen to the muscles.

Evaluation:

I think that my investigation worked really well, my graphs show an increase in the pulse rate after exercise. However, there are some problems which can be resolved if this experiment was repeated.

The use of pulse rate monitor equipment did work well, but the use of a stethoscope can allow direct and accurate measurements of pulse rates.

We also had enough time to allow the individual to get their pulse back to normal. However, as seen, the pulse rate did not lower as much as it should have. For example, during Trial 3, for Males, the initial pulse rate was 108, while in Trial 1 it was about 72. This clearly shows that the time given, which was 2 minutes, was not enough, however due to our time constraint we did not allocate more time. If ever repeated, more time should be provided to subject to allow enough rest so as to be able to reach actual initial pulse rate.

Another issue we faced was that the pace of an individual also affects pulse. People may have started off at a quick pace but slower when they begin to get tired, or in the case of stairs, more energy is needed to climb up the stairs.

Also, I did not measure the person’s heart rate in the same position as they were before and after exercising. If a person was standing instead of sitting, the pulse rate would obviously be higher since muscle energy is still being used to help keep the person upright. For further improvements, the final pulse rate should be taken while the person is in the same position as the initial readings.

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Kylie Garcia

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