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The human skeleton consists of 206 bones, many of which move or hinge at joints and which, enable the body to achieve a variety of actions, such as running, throwing, striking, pulling and pushing. The human skeleton was created by evolution to perform six functions:

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I. To provide a lever system against which muscles can pull

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II. To provide a large surface area for the attachment of muscles

III. To protect delicate organs (i.e the cranium protects the brain)

IV. To give shape to the body

V. To give support to the body (i.e the firm construction of the thorax that permits breathing)

VI. To manufacture red blood cells and store fat, calcium and phosphate

The Muscular System

One of the important functions of the human body is to enable movement. Physical activity is achieved as a result of over 600 muscles that contract or shorten, thereby facilitating the movement of the skeleton across its joints. Muscles are the converters of energy.

3. Name the insertion, origin and state the functions of the following muscles.

Muscle

Function

Insertion

Origin

Pectoralis major

Flexes upper arm and adducts upper arm

Humerous

Sternum

Clavicle

Rib cage

Latissimus Dorsi

Extends upper arm

Adducts upper arm

Humerous

Vertebra (T6-L5)

Deltoid

Flexes upper arm

Adducts upper arm

Extends upper arm

Humerous

Clavicle

Scapula

Acromion

Biceps Brachi

Flexes lower arm

Radius

Scapula

Triceps

Extends lower arm

Oclearanon

Humerus

Scapula

Gluteus Maximus

Extension of the thigh

Femur

Illium

Sacrum

Coccyx

Gluteus Meduis & Mnimus

Abduction of the thigh

Femur

Illium

Hamstring Group

Flexes to lower your legs

Extension of the lower legs

Tibia, Fibula, Head of fibula and lateral of the Londyloid

Ischium

Long Head

Short Head

Quadricep Group

Flexes the thigh

Extends the lower leg

Tibia (VIA Patella tendon)

Illium

Femur

Satorius

Flexes the hip and the knee

Anterior superior

Illiac Spine

Tibia

4. Movement actions and their functions

Action

Joint Used

Movement Pattern

Agonist Muscle

Type of Muscular Contraction

Lever Class

Leg Action in sprinting

Hip

Flexion + Extension

Gluteus Maximus / Hamstrings

Concentric

3

Knee

Flexion + Extension

Quadriceps

Eccentric / Concentric

3

Ankle

Plantar Flexion

Gastrocenemius + Satorius

Eccentric / Concentric

2

Overarm Throw

Shoulder

Flexion

Deltoid / Pectorals

Concentric

3

Elbow

Extension + Adduction

Triceps

Concentric

1

Leg in Squat

Hip

Flexion + Extension

Gluteus Maximus

Eccentric / Concentric

3

Knee

Flexion + Extension

Quadriceps

Eccentric / Concentric

3

Anle

Dorsi Flexion + Plantar Flexion

Solius / Gastrocenemius

Eccentric / Concentric

2

Arm Action in Pushup

Shoulder

Extension + Flexion

Deltoids / Pectorals

Eccentric / Concentric

3

Elbow

Flexion + Extension

Triceps

Eccentric / Concentric

1

Leg action in Kick

Hip

Flexion

Quadriceps rectus, Abdominals

Concentric

3

Knee

Extension

Quadriceps

Concentric

3

Ankle

Plantar Flexion

Tibialis Anterior

Eccentric

3

5. Explaining joints their actions and their plane movements.

Joint

Action

Plane

Hip

Flexion

Median

Extension

Median

Abduction

Frontal

Adduction

Frontal

Lateral Rotation

Horizontal

Medial Rotation

Horizontal

Knee

Flexion

Median

Extension

Median

Medial Rotation (When Fixed)

Horizontal

Lateral Rotation (When Fixed)

Horizontal

Ankle

Dorsi Flexion

Median

Plantar Flexion

Median

Inversion

Frontal

Eversion

Frontal

Shoulder

Flexion

Median

Extension

Median

Adduction

Frontal

Abduction

Frontal

Horizontal Abduction

Horizontal

Medial Rotation

Horizontal

Lateral Rotation

Horizontal

Elbow

Flexion

Median

Extension

Median

Pronation

Horizontal

Supination

Horizontal

Wrist

Flexion

Median

Extension

Median

6. What lever system operates when we nod our head?

The First Class Lever system operates when we nod our head, in the First Class Lever system the Fulcrum lies between the effort and the resistive force.

7. What lever system is operating when we rise to out our toes prior to a dive?

The Second Class Lever system is operating when we raise our toes prior to a dive.

In the second-class lever system the resistance lies between the Fulcrum and the Effort.

8. What lever system is operating when we perform a bicep curl?

The Third Lever Class Lever System is operating when we perform a bicep curl.

In the Third Class Lever System the effort is between the Fulcrum and the Weight.

9. Write a paragraph explaining how levers can affect performance in sport.

The skeleton provides us with a lever system that allows us to move. A lever is a rigid structure (I. E Bone) that rotates around a fixed joint (Falcrum) and is used to apply a force (Effort) against a resistance. The levers provide a larger range of movement, like the extension of an arm in a tennis shot, which is provided by the movement of a lever. The lever decreases resistance and makes a strike in sport.

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Kylie Garcia

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