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Change is something that cannot be avoided in any setting in life. It is clearly inevitable and upon the realization that something is inevitable, the best that can be done is to try as much as possible to fit into the whole process of change. Development on the other hand has some level of deliberate action by the management and it is usually aimed at making the operations of the organization attain more refinement. Organizations are part of our everyday lives and as such are not immune to the element of change. In the whole process of change, so many considerations come into play.

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Organizational change and development come as a result of so many factors. Inevitable conditions within the organization’s operational environment can push it to change. These can come through nature or the decisions made by higher authorities that are in charge of the surroundings within which the organization is operating. The management or leadership of the organization can also decide to come up with a new way of doing things and this amounts to change and sometimes development for the organization. The push for change in terms of factors comes in two forms. There is the external push and the internal push.

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The external is as a result of conditions that are beyond the control of the organization but end up affecting the operations of the business or organization. The internal push is a combination of factors that emanate from the day to day operations of the organization and end up putting the organization in a position that demands that it changes its mode of operation. Whichever the push that is bringing about the change, organizational change comes in the form of a transformation in individual behavior for the members of the organization, change in group behavior and the transformation of the organizational structure.

As the change comes to the organization, there is need for the people who are responsible for the administration of the organization to ensure that this change is managed very adequately so that it benefits the parties in the firm. Thus the best management practices will have to be employed to ensure that this is achieved. There will obviously be resistance to the change since it will involve a shift in culture, something that does not take sudden shocks of change. The way out will be to try and make it easier for the resisting elements to understand why the change is necessary.

Assemblage of all the required tools in effecting the intended change as well as properly applying the new vision for maximum benefit to the organization is part of the implementation of a successful change strategy (Kanter, 1992). Organizational Change This is the shift in the character of an organization. It can be brought about by either external or internal factors or agents. Internal factors of change are those that emanate from the operations of the organization. Depending on the way an organization deals with its affairs, it may be required to take up new ways of doing things and this is change in itself.

An example is a case whereby due to reduced production of raw materials for a processing company, the company goes ahead to reduce the size of the workforce so as to cut down unnecessary spending on the payment of salaries and wages. The management of the organization may also make deliberate moves in altering the way the matters of the organization are handled with an intention of improving the performance of the organization. External factors for organizational change on the other hand have to do with the environment outside the operational sphere of the organization.

External factors are occurrences that take place somewhere without the management circles of the organization and ends up affecting the organization. The effect is in such a way that the organization is forced to alter the way it handles its affairs so as to be in a position to survive. Change takes so many forms. It can cover the entire organization, it can cover a section or department of the organization, it can be radical or transformational or it can be incremental. Change can also be planned or unplanned or sudden. The Lewin Model of managing change and development in an organization

This model puts change through phases. Phase one is the diagnosis phase. Here, a careful look is made so as to find out what needs to be changed. Phase two is unfreezing whereby an allowance for change is made by unhinging the system. Phase three is movement. In this phase the desired change is implemented. Phase number four is refreezing which means that the system is locked up after the desired change has been done. The last phase is renewal which refers to the redefining of the organization and the assumption of a new identity based on the effected change. Organizational Development

This is the intentional and deliberate shift in the operations of an organization with the aim of making it better in service delivery. The drive is the increase ion the effective ness of the organization. The development of an organization is always ushered in after a period of a detailed survey of the status of the organization whereby existing problems are noted. The development is therefore meant o act as a problem solving mission or a solution searching endeavor for the organization. Most organizations involve outsiders who are experts and professionals in designing clear development strategies. The nature of change

The nature of change refers to picture taken by the change taking place in an organization. It is the type of change that is taking place in an organization. Change can take a number of forms. Apart from being externally pushed or internally triggered change, it can be what is done to us by others, usually referred to as type I change, what we do to ourselves normally called type II change and what we do to others and is classified as type III change. It can also be planned whereby due to some unavoidable circumstances the management or leadership of the organization decides to change the way things are done in the organization.

It follows Lewin’s three phase theory of unfreezing, changing and refreezing. It can also be unplanned or sudden whereby unique conditions avail themselves and the operations of the organization get altered without anyone planning. Change can also be explained in terms of scope whereby it can be sectional or company-wide. Sectional change can also be called departmental or partial change and it involves the taking up of new ways of doing things in just one department or two departments within the organization as opposed to changing the whole organization.

Firm-wide change on the other hand has to do with the entire organization being given a new way of operation. Firm-wide change has to be thought through carefully since if a mistake is made, the consequences are normally too grave for the firm or organization. Another nature of change is that of either being transformational or incremental. Transformational change is radical in nature and covers the entire organization at the same time. Under transformational change, the operations of the organization take a different face immediately the change is implemented.

It can be described as a complete makeover for the organization (Kanter, 1992). An example of a transformational change is a case where instead of paying all the employees of an organization through cash, the management decides that all the employees open bank accounts and start getting their salaries in their accounts. Incremental change on the other hand is about implementing the change agenda in piecemeal. It takes place in stages set a part by time and sometimes by department or section within the organization.

For example after using manuals filing systems for a long time, the management of an organization may decide that the finance department transfers all its records from manual to electronic. Reasons would range from the testing to find out how it works out in this one department to financial hiccups where the financial resources to get computers for all departments in the organization are not available. It is possible that after a while, the changes that are made in one department are carried on to the next department and after a while, the whole organization assumes uniformity with the change.

Besides the above, change can also be remedial or developmental. Change of this nature has more to do with the state of the organization. If the organization is in a state of difficulties, it is necessary for the management to work out a way in which a new way of doing things can be gotten so as to ensure that the problems are solved. Change that is designed to heal some hailing part of the organization or to clears out some operational problems is described as remedial change.

Sometimes, a wonderfully performing company or organization may decide that it is going to carry out some changes so that it can perform even better. This change is called developmental change. If an organization finds that the products it is producing are being rejected by complaining customers who talk about poor quality, changes will be made so as to ensure that the quality of the products changes so as to avoid the unfortunate scenario of rejected products. This kind of change is remedial since it is being carried out to heal some ailing part of the organization which is poor quality production.

If on the other hand the same organization finds that its products are selling very well in the market, they may decide to carry out more aggressive campaigns with an aim of attracting more customers to buy their products. Note that this change in marketing is not necessary since the state of the company’s sales is good. But because the management feels that it is good to improve an already well performing area, they are at liberty to go ahead with the changes. This type of change is developmental. It enables the company to move to new higher ground in terms of performance.

Understanding the nature and type of the change being dealt with is vital since proper handling of the processes involved in change will entirely depend on the understanding of the change being implemented in the organization. The management is always the midwife of change in organizations and this therefore means that it has to be thoroughly informed of the whole idea of change that is to be brought to the organization. Forces for Change These are the various aspects of organizational character that call for the alteration of the way things are done in the firm or company.

They are also the aspects of the outside environment that affect the organization in such a way that it his required to change it‘s way of operation so as to be able to remain in the market or continue functioning as an organization. As implied in the definition above, the forces for change are divided into two groups. The first group is that of forces that are as a result of the organization’s activities and these ones are described as internal forces for change. The second group consists of forces that are from the outside environment but they end up affecting the way the affairs of the organization are run.

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Kylie Garcia

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