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What is the point of finding out about air pollution levels and factors of air pollution around Plymouth? The point of finding out is so we can see which time of year or days has the most air pollution. Also what factors affect the leaves of air pollution? The type of air pollution I will be looking into is CO2 and particulates in the air.

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The one way we can make it fair is to take all readings form the same place and keep all the record are required so we can make the conclusion as correct as we can.

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The way the information is collected is by a machine which takes readings very 3 hours for the year of 2001.

I Predict in winter there will be less Carbon particles in the air because Carbon particles are heavy and the rain (which we always have in winter time) will reduce the Carbon particles in the air, but in the summer when there is very little rain there will have more Carbon particles in the air. There will be a higher amounts of CO2 levels will be higher because there will be more people using car because in winter when its wet and cold more people will be using the cars to travel to the work, school and holidays on time.

Here is why there is Carbon particles and CO2 in the air and what we can do to reduce air pollution and what the consequences are.

The gasses I will be looking into both comes form a combustion engines and both are products when you burn any fossil fuel. The gases are Carbon Dioxide and particles which are carbon and others left over form incomplete combustion. In Vehicles engines some use a Catalytic converter which reduces the Carbon Dioxide emissions. Carbon Dioxide is a greenhouse gases which aids the green house effect by building gasses, which act as a blanket. The suns energy can not leave the atmosphere therefore the earth warms, which makes the ice caps melts therefore the sea leave to rise.

Combustion is the reaction of burning fuels the reaction is rapid, I produces light, sound and energy which in a car drivers the piston which makes the car move.

In complete Combustion there is a simple equation for it and it is:

Hydrocarbon (fuel) + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water

This will always use these for the same purpose in every case; Oxygen will always be a reactant and involve hydrocarbons.

When there is complete combustion there always could have incomplete combustion, reaction, the products may be Carbon particles and or Carbon mixed + more water. Depends on the amount of Oxygen or levels of fuel.

The way in which we can cut down on air pollution is to fit Catalytic converters to cars, but older car cannot have these because they do not have the right spacing in the exhaust system. The older cars also have leaded petrol which makes it harder to fit them.

Catalytic Converter

(1) The in side of a Catalytic converter has a honey comb surface which increases the surface area. This help the effectiveness as there is a lot more surface area for the reactions to take place this means they will be more efficient.

As you can see a simple Catalytic converter cuts down a bit but not enough so a new 3 way Catalytic converter was invented it helps to cut down on Nitrogen levels. It works in the same ways as a Catalytic converter but it has 3 sections inside, like this.

A) The Oxidization Catalyst

2CO + O2 => 2CO2

B) The Reduction Catalyst

2NO => N2 + O2 or 2NO2 => N2 + 2O2

C) Honey comb surface

Greater surface area

Most modern cars are equipped with three-way catalytic converters. Three-way stands for the three regulated emissions it helps to reduce, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and particulates. The converter uses two different types of catalysts, a reduction catalyst and an oxidization catalyst. Both types consist of a ceramic structure coated with a metal catalyst, usually platinum, rhodium and/or palladium. The idea is to create a structure that exposes the maximum surface area of catalyst to the exhaust stream, while also minimizing the amount of catalyst required (they are very expensive).

The catalytic converter does a great job at reducing the pollution, but it can still be improved substantially. One of its biggest shortcomings is that it only works at a fairly high temperature. When you start your car cold, the catalytic converter does almost nothing to reduce the pollution in your exhaust so preheating the catalytic converter is a good way to reduce emissions

Gasses like water vapor, carbon dioxide, CFC, methane, nitrous oxide and hydrocarbons particulates are greenhouse gasses (GHG). The greenhouse effect is the build up gases in the atmosphere forming a thick surface which acts as a big blanket. As it gets thicker there is more heat being saved up.

This Picture shows the greenhouses effect.

That is how global warming takes place, global warming is when the earth heats up and the polar ice caps melt and then the sea levels rise. That means half the world will go under the sea.

So back to my Predict which I Predict in winter there will be less Carbon particles in the air because Carbon particles are heavy and the rain (which we always have in winter time) will reduce the Carbon particles in the air, but in the summer when there is very little rain there will have more Carbon particles in the air. There will be a higher amounts of CO2 levels will be higher because there will be more people using car because in winter when its wet and cold more people will be using the cars to travel to the work, school and holidays on time.

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Kylie Garcia

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