Post Independence Planning in India ( Decentralised Planning )
In the early period of post-independent development be aftering the urbanization was typically addressed as a job within the concerns for balanced regional development, industrial growing and lodging proviso. Post-Independence period is noted as one of the major period for be aftering activities in India. As post-independent India was enduring from deficiency of resources in footings of finance, employment, etc. ; the so premier curate Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru encouraged planning activities. He appointed economic experts like Dr. Mahalanobish, Dr. Ashok Mitra as of import members in the procedure of planning. At that clip the planning was more of economic planning and resource allotment. And as India was enduring from many jobs like malnutrition, unemployment and poorness that was impacting India’s development. Planning was focussed chiefly on particular parts at this clip and was more of axial planning.
After liberalization, denationalization and globalization India took new form in 1990s ; planning activities has been given more importance in the state and this century was really of import in be aftering facets. Subsequently in the 20th century, due to neo-liberal policies ; globalization, investings and free trade came up. Due to this and exceed down attack undertaken, disparities between rural and urban country started increasing. Huge migration took topographic point, from rural countries to urban countries. This was due to the pull-effect. Due to the addition in population in urban countries, the local governments were unable to supply installations and services to them as they were missing fiscal resources and proficient cognition. In 1993 73rdand 74Thursdayconstitutional amendment came and termed as induction of modern-day planning activities in India.
In 1992, the 74ThursdayConstitutional Amendment Act was renewed. It was a landmark Act which sought to deconcentrate determination devising in metropoliss and towns through creative activity of elective urban local organic structures ( ULBs ) as establishments of democratic self-governance and degeneration of indispensable maps related to metropolis planning and service proviso to these organic structures. The outstanding characteristics of the 74th CAA are: debut of the Twelfth Schedule which lists the maps of the ULBs, constitution of ward commissions in countries holding a population of over 3 hundred thousands, periodic and timely elections of ULBs, and degeneration of fundss to ULBs as per the suggestions of the State Finance Commissions ( SFCs ) .This led to the decentralization of power and bottom-down attack which impacted in induction of modern-day planning activities with effectual community engagement. Before the 74ThursdayCAA, the planning and decision-making maps remained in the custodies of two political degrees, viz. cardinal authorities and province authorities. Till so the ULB’s, Municipalities and panchayets functioned as bureaus of civic operation. After the act, they got power of micro-level planning. The decentralization led to participatory planning. A good illustration of be aftering done by sing the grass root degree is Kollam. The program for this territory was made by pass oning at grass-root degrees by following alterations as the people requested. There are many socio-cultural factors that affect the decentralization in India, which makes a difference in the participatory planning. This is applicable, particularly in the instance of small towns in India. Villages in India are characterised by unequal distribution of resources and power construction that is strictly based on the land keeping and caste hierarchy. Due to this, determination devising was still in the custodies of the elect category of the small town. This was besides due to the ground that adult females stayed off from the populace and were less educated and the SC’s and ST’s were ignored. But, due to the debut of reserve, they are allowed to stand for themselves in panchayet. Due to the cultural disparities, suppression and fright ; adult females, SC and ST representatives found it really hard to take part in Gram Sabha development proceedings. These factors affected determinations like fund allotment, prioritisation and designation of job, designation of work sites and execution of undertakings. The administrative reforms committee ( 1966-70 ) came up with a study the 3rdfive twelvemonth program, which criticised cardinal character of planning of Indian planning and advocated planning to be done at province and territory degree. It explained the method of fixing province program for rural development on the footing of territory and block programs. To develop the three-tier panchayati raj system based on Balwant beam Mehta commission, attempts were done with its thought based on “planning from below” . To advance territory degree be aftering “the Planning Commission” made particular attempts by utilizing guidelines for preparation of territory programs in 1969. They encouraged the system in doing territory programs. The first territory programs were made by Kerala and Maharashtra. The planning committee set up a Working Group on District Planning commission under Dr. CH Hanumanth Rao under which attempts were made to do block degree and territory degree planning best. And their purpose was to do range and for province planning ; to portray the process of decentralized planning at province degree and to do it operational ; to follow the methodological analysis and urge the process for incorporating block degree and territory degree planning. These was foremost adopt in two provinces that is Maharashtra and Karnataka. The construct of territory planning was kindred to built-in country planning. This was all possible due to the 73rdand 74ThursdayCAA 1992, which gave power to local authoritiess to take part in the planning procedure. The legislative assembly required Torahs to stipulate those powers and duties so that it can be given to the Panchayati Raj and municipalities for the betterment of economic and societal development. The maps and revenue enhancement powers are shared between local organic structure and the province based on a house terms. The 11Thursdayand 12Thursdayfive twelvemonth programs widen their functional country, so they can travel far beyond the proviso of civic comfortss.
Sing the current state of affairs, India has undergone poorness decrease and has sustained economic growing. But, the urban- rural divide, regional disparities, gender inequality, etc. point to the insufficiencies in planning. Another job is why decentralization is non seeable in the state. It is due to certain hinderances are originating like corruptness, deficiency of capacity edifice and preparation of functionaries, deficiency of monitoring and rating, ‘n’ figure of guidelines and Acts of the Apostless, deficiency of awareness’s sing planning and absence of right based attack in planning.
There seems to be a formidable consensus in the political and economic elite that the urban reform docket, as enunciated in Decentralisation and several other programmes and policies, is one of the cardinal instruments for maintaining the state on the way of high growing. Forces of decentralized planning should be encouraged and sustained to enable it to strike deep roots in the procedure of Planning.
- “Decentralised Planing in India- A Myth or a Reality” , Raktim Ray, Development Alternatives Newsletter, Lead narrative, 2012.