We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

POVERTY REDUCTION AND SOCIAL CAPITAL IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: ORGANIZATIONAL AND MANAGERIAL PERSPECTIVES.

The best essay writers are ready to impress your teacher.
Make an order now!


Proceed

GET A BETTER ESSAY OUR TEAM IS READY TO WRITE
YOUR ESSAY ON
Poverty reduction and social capital in... JUST FROM $13/PAGE

Title:

Recent research works has identified societal capital as one of the integration bonds used in contending poorness and Southern Cross of self-sustenance in developing universes, World Bank ( 2003 ) , Woolcock, ( 2000 ) . Hence, the construct of Social Capital has been defined in several ways aboard with several arguments environing its importance in both social and organisational positions. Besides, there is a developing apprehension that societal capital so leads to state of affairss that remarkably permits histrions and members to derive certain benefits and entitlements all by the virtuousness of their ranks. Merely as Sublime portes ( 1998 ) cited in Grootaert ( 1999 ) is of the wider sentiment that sing the overall purposes good and aims of the societal enterprisers and constructions could profit societal capital and terminal poorness in both micro, meso and macro degrees Eventhough widespread poorness has been a national issue in so many states, particularly the underdeveloped 1s, the cardinal functions of both the private sector and organisational motivations can non be emphasized. Lobel ( 2013 ) submits that active engagement of private sector and other organisations have non been obvious in developing states, due to the powerful nature of poorness in these parts. Furthermore, managerial duties in turn toing the issue are still missing and necessitate a considerable degree of research.

Purpose:

To this terminal, this research work shall take an exploring and analyzing the effects of societal capital on poorness decrease through managerial and organisational positions in northern Nigeria and is so the Southern Cross of this research. However, to prosecute this chief end some specific aims are besides aimed at in this survey.

Aims:

This research has one chief end, which is to analyze the effects of societal capital on poorness decrease in Nigeria within the managerial and organisational positions. However, to prosecute this chief end some specific aims are besides aimed at in this survey. These aims are as follows:

  1. To look into and understand the poorness degree in Northern portion of Nigeria.
  2. To analyse the nature of the societal capital in Northern portion of Nigeria.
  3. To find the influence of the societal capital in poorness decrease in Northern portion of Nigeria through Social interaction, networking, trust, norms, Cooperative society, association.
  4. Above all to streamline these issues into managerial and organisational position so as to determine their comparative parts in stoping poorness in Nigeria.

The secondary aim will further research the nature of the other indigenously adult NGOs, private sectors and national bureaus and in battle against poorness in Nigeria. This is premised on the fact that Nigeria is a multi-cultural and diverse environment, any would be and accelerated impacts on poorness will rest on the these histrions since they know the Nigerian terrain more than the international organisations. These I shall foreground with some descriptive and qualitative analysis

Research Questions and Hypothesis:

  1. What is the poorness state of affairs in Nigeria and Northern Nigeria in peculiar?
  2. What constitutes/are the nature of the societal capital in Northern Nigeria?
  3. What are the finding influences of the societal capital in poorness decrease in Northern Nigeria?
  4. Has at that place been any organisational and managerial effectivity towards turn toing the duplicate issues-social capital on poorness?
  5. What ancestors and other organisational motives explain the either the resence or absence of private sector in an attempts towards relieving poorness in Nigeria?
  6. Has at that place been any seeable impacts of direction and organisations towards the solutions to the stated jobs

Introduction:

Nigeria’s current economic state of affairs, aggravated by negative effects of assorted economic policy introduced by the authorities since 80’s such as Austerity Measure and Structural Adjustment Program ( SAP ) to sign the jobs have undermined the country’s attempts toward economic growing and development and have caused a batch of adversity on the people. This has later resulted in a high degree of poorness within the state such that in 2004 about 75.5 % of the nation’s population is populating below the poorness line.

Looking at the bulk of the people in the state it was reveals widespread wretchedness because their life criterion has deteriorated due to the prostration of public substructures, autumn in their incomes. Merely little proportions of the public have entree to instruction, wellness attention services and good imbibing H2O. For case, in 1995 about 43 % of the grownup populations are nonreaders in Nigeria and merely 67 % and 43 % of the entire population have entree to wellness attention services and clean imbibing H2O severally ( World Bank 1997a:224-227 ) . Poverty has turned many of them into destitute, mendicants, cocottes and paupers. Poverty besides answers for the addition in the offense rate degree in the society, kid labour and molestation, maternal A good illustration on the offense rate addition can be judged with the important addition with instances of offenses and discourtesies documented by the constabulary which rose from 258,655 in the twelvemonth 1996 to 358,655 in the twelvemonth 2008. Besides in 2008 the infant mortality rate shows that merely 80 out of every 1000 survives and the lfe anticipation at birth stood at 53 old ages ( FOS2008: 149 ; World Bank 2000a: 224 -225 )

Given this state of affairs, several efforts have been made to turn to or at least cut down the job of poorness. Once upon a clip, supplying exigency assistance and immense investing in infrastructural services, fast industrialisation, renown ballot for incorporate rural development and urban undertakings, re-distribution of income and rapid economic growing through the debut of asceticism step and structural accommodation plan were believed to be the solutions. Recently, there seems to be a general belief among bookmans and policy shapers in Nigeria that development and publicity of the Social Capital will travel a long manner in turn toing poorness state of affairs.

Literature Review-poverty and societal capital:

2.1. Poverty

  1. Importance, Measurement,

Harmonizing to Encyclopedia Americana ( 1989 ) poorness could be seen from two alternate points of position: ( I ) “ mannerlessness ” which implies both an insufficiency of money and constant inadequacy of assets of different assortments to carry through cardinal human demands, for illustration, nutriment, remainder, heat and organic structure head ; and ( two ) “ impotence ” significance the persons who fail to offer the chances and determinations open to them and whose lives appear to them to be legislated by powers and individuals outside their control. That is, in places of power or by seen “ evil forces ” or “ difficult good luck ”

  1. Appraisal of Poverty

As indicated by Foster, et.al ( 1984 ) , the most frequently utilised appraisals are: ( I ) the head tribunal Poverty file given by the rate of the public that live in the households with an use for every capita short of what the poorness line ; ( two ) Poverty spread index which reflects the reconditeness of Poverty by taking into record how far the normal destitute ‘s pay is from the Poverty line ; and ( three ) the distributional huffy step of squared Poverty spread characterized as the method for the squared proportionate Poverty spread which reflects the earnestness of Poverty. Surveies by United Nations Development Program ( UNDP ) advocates the use of the Human Development Index ( HDI ) . As indicated by UNDP ( 2009 ) , HDI consolidate three parts in the appraisal of Poverty: ( I ) hereafter during childbearing ( life span ) ; ( two ) direction accomplishment and ; ( three ) enhanced outlook for mundane amenitiess dictated by for every capita pay. The primary identifies with survival-helplessness to decease at a reasonably early age. The 2nd identifies with information being barred from the existence of perusal and correspondence. The 3rd identifies with a conventional life criterion sing general pecuniary provisioning. Poverty has different visual aspects which incorporate among others: absence of wage and paid assets sufficient to vouch maintainable work, hankering and deficiency of healthy nutriment, ill well-being, constrained or absence of entree to preparation and other indispensable disposals, expanded ghastliness and mortality from illness, homelessness and lacking, risky and corrupted environment and societal separation and turning away. It is to boot described by absence of involvement in pick devising in common, societal and societal life ( World Bank 1990 ; United Nations 1995 )

  1. Poverty Reduction Strategies in Nigeria

To decrease Poverty different schools of thought protagonists assorted steps. For illustration, the Mercantilists laid emphasis on outside exchange which by them is an imperative vehicle for the promotion of pecuniary development and Poverty lessening. The Classical economic experts ‘ ( Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, and so on. ) perspectives on Poverty diminishment brought to fore the societal patterned advances achieved by mechanical patterned advances coming approximately because of the modern revolution that occurred between 1750-1850. In Nigeria, different deliberations were made by the legislative assembly, non-legislative associations and people to decrease Poverty in the state. As indicated by Ogwumike ( 2001 ) Poverty lessening steps actualized so far in Nigeria centres more consideration on pecuniary development, cardinal demands and countrified promotion techniques. The pecuniary development methodological analysis centres consideration on fast fiscal development as measured by the rate of development in true for every capita GDP or for every capita national wage, value soundness and worsening unemployment among others, which are achieved through suiting harmonisation of financial and pecuniary agreements. The indispensable demand methodological analysis centres consideration on the cardinal necessities of life, for illustration, nutriment, societal insurance, instruction, vesture and shelter, conveyance, H2O and sanitation, which could authorise the hapless carry on with a tolerable life. The provincial promotion methodological analysis centres consideration on the aggregative release and strengthening of the rural portion. In facilitation to his discourses on the steps, Ogwumike ( 2001 ) gathered the methodological analysiss for Poverty decrease in Nigeria into three periods – the pre–SAP period, the SAP clip and the ballot based period. In the pre-SAP period, the steps that were prevailing were the Operation Feed the Nation, the River Basin Development Authorities, the Agricultural Development Programs, the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme, the Rural Electrification Scheme and the Green Revolution. In the SAP period the attach toing Poverty diminishment steps were presented ; the Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructures, the National Directorate of Employment, the Better Life Program, the Peoples ‘ Bank, the Community Banks, the Family Support Program and the Family Economic Advancement Program. The merely clip saw the presentation of the Poverty Alleviation Program ( PAP ) intended to give business to 200,000 persons everyplace throughout the state. It was similarly gone for learning and heightening better demeanour towards a support society in roadways, urban and countrified streets and unfastened constructions. By 2001 PAP was eliminated and intertwined into the late made National Poverty Eradication Program ( NAPEP ) which was a critical piece of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy ( NEEDS ) .

2.2 Social Capital

Significance

There are legion definitions and elucidations of the thought of societal capital, there is a developing agreement that “ societal capital bases for the capableness of executing creative persons to procure net incomes by excellence of registration in informal community or other societal constructions ” . Sublime portes ( 1998 ) refered to in grootaert ( 1999 ) said that: in the event that we take an expansive position of what included these “ other societal construction ” so societal is a important thought at the micro, meso and macro degrees ” . At the macro degree societal capital incorporates constitutions, for illustration, authorities, the guideline of jurisprudence, common and pecuniary freedom. There is overmastering cogent evidence that at macro flat societal capital has a mensurable consequence on national pecuniary executing. At the micro and meso degree societal capital alludes to the system and criterions that administer association among people, households and groups. Such systems are often ( yet non so much ) given construction through the formation of nearby association or vicinity organisations. ( See Knack 1999 ) .

Research Methodology

Here, quantitative methods would be deployed since it is a beginning of roll uping in depth information and besides helps in comparing of different facets and over a period of clip. Questionnaires would be designed which would be presented to respondent for roll uping informations. Such informations would assist us in finding the effectivity of societal capital and how it helps in accomplishing poorness decrease in Northern Nigeria.

Sampling

The issues to be raised in the questionnaire will include the background of the respondents ( i.e. matrimonial position, educational position, employment position, family size and composing ) , income, and entire consumption-expenditure, the extent of societal capital in the last annual

Sample size

A graded sampling method will be used in the choice of the respondents for the intent of this survey. Minna city of Nigeria ( consisting Bosso local authorities and Chanchaga local authorities ) will function as the sample units in conformity with these sample units, a structured questionnaire will be distributed to about 200 respondents in each zone.

Datas Analysis

Once the information is collected by the manner of interviews, such informations has to be analyzed to come to the decision of effectivity of societal capital and its part to cut down poorness. Statistical tools like additive and multiple arrested developments will be used to deduce the relationship between the societal capital and its advantages to cut down poorness.

Time Frame

Activities

Number of yearss required

Choosing sample

30 yearss

Choosing sample size

25 yearss

Fixing questionnaires

25 yearss

Meeting directors

55 yearss

Analyzing informations

30 yearss

Screening informations

20 yearss

Fixing a concluding study

40 yearss

Entire

225 yearss

Bibliography

African Development Bank ( 2010 ) Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indexs on African States 2010 Abidjan: ADB.

Aku, P.S, Ibrahim, M.J. & A ; Bulus, Y.D ( 1997 ) Position on Poverty Alleviation Strategies in Nigeria. In Proceedings of the Nigeria Economic Society Annual Conference on Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria 1997. Ibadan: Neon: 41-54

Berg, B. l. ( 2004 ) , ‘Qualitative Research Methods’ , Pearson Educations, Fifth Edition.

Collier, P. ( 1998 ) Social Capital and poorness. The World Bank Social Capital Initiatives Working Paper No 4

Coleman, J. ( 1998 ) “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital” American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 94

Foster, J, Greer J, & A ; Thorbecke, E ( 1984 ) A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures Econometrica. Vol. 52: 761-5

Francis, P, Akinwumi, J.A. , Ngwu, P, Nkom, S.A, Odili, J, Olamajeye, J.A, Okunmadewa, F & A ; Shehu, D.J ( 1996 )

Grootaert, C. etal ( 1998 ) Social Capital Household Welfare and poorness in Indonesia. The World Bank Local Level Institutions Working Paper No 7

Grootaert, C. etal ( 1999 ) Social capital and Development Outcome in Burkina Faso. The World bank Local establishments Working Paper No. 7

United Nations Development Programme ( UNDP ) ( 2009 ) Nigeria: Human Development Report 1999. Lagos: UNDP.

United Nations ( 1995 ) The Report of the World Summit for Social Development and Programme of Action. Copenhagen. 16-12 Marc

Holme, I.M. & A ; Solvang B.K.( 1997 ) ’Forskningsmetodik: om kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder’ ,

Lund, Studentlitteratur, Second Edition.

Knack, Stephan and Keefer, Philippe ( 1997 ) Does societal capital have an economic final payment? A cross- state probe, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 112, No.4, pp.1251-1288

Knack, Stephan ( 1999 ) Social Capital, growing and poorness: A study of croo-country grounds, Social capital Initiative Working Paper, No 7, World Bank

Rossteutscher, Sirid ( 2008 ) Social Capital and Civic Engagement: A Comparative Perspective, in Castiglione, Dario ; Deth, Jan W. new wave and Wolleb, Guglielmo eds. , The Handbook of Social Capital. World Bank.

Saunders, M. et Al.( 2007 ) ‘Research Methods for Business Students’ , Harlow, Pearson Education

Ltd, Prentice Hall, Fourth Edition

Yahie A.M ( 1993 ) The Design and Management of Poverty Alleviation Projects in Africa: Evolving Guidelines

Share this Post!

Kylie Garcia

Hi, would you like to get professional writing help?

Click here to start